Storm surge event at North Rustico Harbour, Prince Edward Island.

A continuum of green (“soft”) to gray (“hard”) shoreline stabilization techniques.

Rock revetment, combined with beach openings, used to protect the highway embankment at the entrance to Fundy National Park in Alma, New Brunswick, at low tide.

Intertidal reefs at low tide in Souris, Prince Edward Island, July 2018.

Aerial views of early-stage tidal wetland habitat recovery (brown mudflat areas) at a) Belcher Street managed realignment site, near the Cornwallis River in NS, in September 2018 (four months post-breach); and b) Aerial view of developing intertidal habitat at the Converse managed realignment site in August 2019 (eight months post-breach). Arrows indicate location of realigned dyke.

Three examples of vulnerable coastal roads in Newfoundland and Labrador. a) Dead-end road that extends west from the community of O’Donnells, Newfoundland and Labrador, which was eroded following several storm events between 2007 and 2011. The road is no longer being maintained. b) The road that formerly followed the crest of the barachois in Clements Cove, Newfoundland and Labrador, which has now been abandoned following several wash-over events that took place between 1990 and 2010. The displaced guardrails remain. c) The breakwater that protects the tombolo road in Ferryland, Newfoundland and Labrador, was damaged frequently as a result of storm events between 1989 and 2010, and necessitated periodic reconstruction and maintenance.

The Acadian Peninsula, northeastern New Brunswick.

Damage caused by the 2017 ice storm in the Acadian Peninsula.

Map of attributes in natural and built environments within Middleton, Nova Scotia and their cooling or heating influence. Attributes considered include water regime, aspect, air circulation and surface materials.

Location of facilities relative to “hot” areas in Middleton, Nova Scotia. Some facilities support vulnerable populations, including the elderly or people with long-term care needs. Other areas are spaces for outdoor recreation, with exposure to sun and heat.

Map of Dissemination Areas in Nova Scotia showing levels of social vulnerability, based on a Social Vulnerability Index (SVI). The inset map from a coastal community illustrates the integration of the SVI mapping with a proxy representation (i.e., the dark blue overlay) of projected worst-case relative sea-level rise and storm-surge flooding to 2100. The inset map also shows a count of residential buildings and the distribution of roads within the proxy flood area.

Kouchibouguac Archaeological Sites Map.

Managed Acadian forests in Nova Scotia.

Network diagrams were used to display the relationships between qualities of collaboration in the process and achieved outcomes in the Tantramar/Chignecto Climate Change Adaptation Collaborative case study. The bold lines highlight linkages that were selected most often by participants, indicating the qualities (blue) that were considered to be the most influential for informing certain outcomes from the collaboration (red). The qualities and outcomes closer to the centre of the diagram are those that were deemed by participants as being most important.

Vegetation zones, bioclimatic domains, and ecological regions of Quebec.

Map of the 11 Indigenous nations in Quebec.

Map of heat islands in Montreal, Quebec.

Redevelopment project of Saint-Maurice Street in Trois-Rivières.

Fluvial section, Estuary, and Gulf of St. Lawrence.

Sections of Route 132 washed away in La Martre, Gaspé.

Diagram showing the factors that influence coastal squeeze.

Ice jam flooding on the Sainte-Anne River in Saint-Raymond.

Probability of favourable habitat for sugar maple, trembling aspen, and black spruce in 2050 and 2080 compared to 1961–1990.

Phenological mismatch of hares due to late winter arrival.

Total consumption by energy type in Quebec in 2017 (left) and Electricity production by energy source in Quebec in 2018 (right).

Climate change adaptation cycle.

Map of Ontario’s subregions.

Methods and routes for accessing communities in Northern Ontario, including access by air, boat, rail and numerous road types. Winter roads are shown using red broken lines.

Example of asset deterioration curve for roads showing how reoccurring, planned investments in adaptation and the preservation of assets during the initial degradation phase (e.g. from “excellent” to “good”) are significantly more cost-effective than reactive management through rehabilitation or reconstruction for conditions ranging from “fair” to “very poor”.

Interdependencies in utilities within the GTA.

Determining factors of the Climate Change Vulnerability Index.

Climate change vulnerability indexed scores and confidence levels.

Pre (left) and post (right) photos of the Nature Conservancy of Canada Williams Wetland restoration project within the Norfolk Sand Plain Area.

Observed Great Lakes annual maximum ice cover (%) from 1973 to 2018. The red dashed line indicates the long-term average.

Left: eroding bluffs along Lake Erie at Wheatley Provincial Park in 2018. Right: August 27, 2019 flooding at Erie Shore Drive. Increased shoreline erosion and flood risk are attributed to changes in lake levels, ice cover and exposure to wave energy.

Key elements of a binational approach to climate change adaptation and resilience, developed by the Great Lakes Water Quality Board.

Forest regions in Ontario.

Aerial (left) and ground (right) views of damaged jack pine plantations near Upsala, Ontario, taken in May and June 2012.

Glow and haze from wildfire during the evacuation of Pikangikum, July 10, 2021.

Sample output of SeedWhere, showing seed procurement and deployment for seeds in Sudbury, Ontario.

Health vulnerabilities for different populations experiencing a heat wave.

Linkages between climate change-related disasters and human health impacts.

Factors influencing the psychosocial health impacts of climate change.

Core elements of heat alert and response systems.

The adaptation cycle as presented in the Blackfeet Climate Change Adaptation Plan.

Interactive risk assessment workshop with Georgina Island First Nation community members.

Map of the Ecozones of the Prairie Provinces also showing the Aboriginal Lands of Canada Legislative Boundaries, and major cities, rivers, and lakes.

Economic impacts of the most damaging extreme weather events to date in the Prairie provinces. Costs represent insured losses in 2018 $. Total costs are generally much higher.

Visual representation of key adaptation measures from Calgary’s Flood Resilience Plan. The plan uses a three-layered approach:

  1. Upstream flood protection on the Bow and Elbow Rivers to increase water storage and help slow larger flows from the mountains
  2. Community-level flood protection through the installation and upgrading of permanent infrastructure, and
  3. Property-level flood protection through changes to building regulations and bylaws, limiting types of development in flood-prone areas and public education.

The 2016 Fort McMurray wildfire.

Approaches considered by the Bow River Basin Working Group for reducing flood impacts.

The process used by the Athabasca River Basin Working Group to move from increasing understanding of the Athabasca River basin to developing a roadmap for sustainable water management (AIRM: Athabasca Integrated River Model; PM: Performance Measures).

Comparison between spring wheat yield anomalies (e.g., departures from the trend) and growing season Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) for the Swift Current Creek Watershed in Saskatchewan.

Considerations in building climate resilience in the City of Calgary. This figure has been used to build climate literacy with multiple stakeholders.

Biogeoclimatic zones of British Columbia.

Summary of Fraser River salmon-related results.

Map showing communities located in inland British Columbia that were affected by flooding during the 2017 flood season.

Schematic representation of protection, accommodation and retreat responses to sea-level rise.

Coastal area of Surrey, B.C. Photo courtesy of the City of Surrey.

The City of Surrey’s Coastal Flood Adaptation Strategy was developed using graphics that distilled complex technical information and facilitated meaningful public and stakeholder engagement. Featured here is an example of an evaluation matrix for the shortlisted adaptation options for Mud Bay, one of the three CFAS study areas.

Provincial timber supply forecast to 2100, including data specific to B.C.’s interior and coastal regions. This analysis projects decreases in timber supply to about 58 million cubic metres per year by 2025, due to mortality caused by the Mountain Pine Beetle epidemic. The forecasted timber supply increases to 65–70 million cubic metres per year in 2075, although this does not account for potential impacts of climate change on tree survival and growth or for increases in disturbances.

Factors influencing B.C.’s agricultural adaptive capacity.

Landscape geohazard map for Salluit, Nunavik, summarizing permafrost thaw hazards at the local level. This map was used to inform planning and development in the community and at its airport.

Climate change impacts and trends in several key species that are harvested for subsistence or commercial purposes in the North.

Conceptual representation of an ecosystem (portrayed by a black ball) within a theoretical landscape of alternative ecosystem states (portrayed by valleys separated by peaks). a) The ecosystem is resilient to disturbances lying within the historical range of variability and previous adaptation, indicated by disturbances that may move the system, but not cause it to shift to another state. b) The ecosystem is likely to shift to a different state in response to hypothesized mechanisms that move the ecosystem beyond its historical range of variability and previous adaptation, and trigger a shift to a different ecosystem state.

Landsat-based maps showing greenness trends through the use of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), which estimates the density of greenery in an area using the difference between visible and near-infrared reflectance of vegetation. Where there were not enough valid observations to derive greenness trends, all thematic layers were set to “no data.” Letters A to H represent ground validation sites.

Infographic of quick facts about the Community Freezer Program in Hopedale, Nunatsiavut.

SmartICE is a community-based social enterprise offering climate change adaptation tools and services that integrate Inuit knowledge of sea ice with monitoring technology. This is a photo of SmartICE researchers Samuel Dicker (left) and Rex Holwell (right). Photo courtesy of SmartICE and Hamlin Lampe, 2022.

Photo of the Dempster Highway following a heavy rainfall event in August 2022.

Infographic illustrating how thermosiphon foundation systems function, which ultimately aim to stop heat from a building from damaging the permafrost located beneath it.