The water-level records (monthly values, with tides removed) of nine tide gauges distributed around Canada. The records show differing linear trends from one location to another, primarily indicating different amounts of vertical land motion arising from glacial isostatic adjustment and other factors. Superposed on this long-term change is substantial variability from year to year, indicating the changing nature of the oceans and the influence of climate cycles and other processes. For the west coast, the 1997/98 El Niño–Southern Oscillation event (ENSO, indicated by arrows) was a time of high water levels during the winter months. Individual tide gauge records are vertically offset for display purposes.
Tide gauge data obtained from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level at <http://www.psmsl.org/data/obtaining> and accessed 19 September 2017.