Figure-2.8: Natural and anthropogenic forcing of climate, 1750–2011

Radiative forcing (RF; the net change in the energy balance of the Earth system due to an external perturbation), based on changes in concentrations of forcing agents, between 1750 and 2011, in units of watts per square metre (W/m2). Hatched bars are radiative forcing (RF), and solid bars are effective radiative forcing (ERF), the RF once rapid adjustments in atmospheric temperatures, water vapour, and clouds to the initial perturbation are accounted for. Uncertainties (5%–95% uncertainty range) are given for ERF (solid horizontal lines [whiskers]) and for RF (dotted whiskers). The total anthropogenic forcing is the sum of the anthropogenic forcing contributions. See description in Section 2.2.


Based on Myhre et al., 2013, Figure 8.15; and IPCC, 2013a, Figure TS.6.