Recommended Citation:
Warren, F. and Lulham, N., editors (2021). Canada in a Changing Climate: National Issues Report; Government of Canada, Ottawa, ON.

Canada in a Changing Climate: National Issues Report was led by Natural Resources Canada and provides a national perspective on how climate change is impacting our communities, environment and economy, and how we are adapting. The report provides decision makers with an assessment of current literature and knowledge on climate change impacts and adaptation, and includes case stories that feature examples of adaptation in practice. The chapters focus on themes of national importance and that benefit from an integrated cross-Canada perspective. Chapters discuss key vulnerabilities, risks and challenges; new and innovative approaches to adaptation; Indigenous knowledge and perspectives; and knowledge gaps and emerging issues. The report is a product of Canada in a Changing Climate: Advancing our Knowledge for Action, Canada’s national climate change assessment process.

The digital interactive version of the report is available at www.ChangingClimate.ca/National-Issues Issues. The report is also available at: adaptation.nrcan.gc.ca

Edited by:

Fiona J. Warren
Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Division
Natural Resources Canada

Nicole Lulham
Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Division
Natural Resources Canada

Recommended Citation:
Warren, F. and Lulham, N., editors (2021). Canada in a Changing Climate: National Issues Report; Government of Canada, Ottawa, ON.

Aussi disponible en français sous le titre Le Canada dans un climat en changement : Rapport sur les enjeux nationaux

For more information regarding reproduction rights, contact Natural Resources Canada at:

For more information about the national assessment, contact the Assessment Secretariat at:

CAT : M174-24/2021E-PDF
ISBN : 978-0-660-38842-7
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4095/328384



The Assessment Secretariat gratefully acknowledges the following people for taking the time to provide critical, expert reviews of one of more chapters of the report:

  • Bhim Adhikari
  • Bruce Currie Alder
  • Vidya Anderson
  • Adeniyi Asiyanbi
  • Stephanie Austin
  • Carol Aziz
  • Dan Babaluk
  • Céline Bak
  • Talaat Bakri
  • Phil Beard
  • Kevin Behan
  • Maija Bertule
  • Dale Beugin
  • Barrie Bonsal
  • Mark Boysen
  • Sara Brown
  • Chris Buse
  • Elizabeth Bush
  • Ian Campbell
  • Nazzareno Capano
  • Devin Causley
  • Nicole Cerpnjak
  • Juan-Carlos Ciscar
  • Stewart Cohen
  • Dylan Clark
  • Tugce Conger
  • Teresa Cline
  • Ellen Curtis
  • Danielle Dagenais
  • Simon Daigle
  • Simon Dalby
  • Julie Desjardins
  • James Davies
  • Marlene Doyle
  • Michele Leone
  • Bohan Li
  • Rob de Loë
  • Paddy Enright
  • Guy Felio
  • Kerri Finlay
  • Jeffrey Frank
  • Randy Gillespie
  • Elisabeth Gilmore
  • Paul Griss
  • Rohan Hamden
  • Sharon Hanley-Smith
  • Deb Harford
  • Monica Harvey
  • Daniel Henstra
  • Micah Hewer
  • Jeffrey Hicke
  • Lisa Hiwasaki
  • Dayne-Michael Hornick
  • Sara Janis
  • Amy Kim
  • Dan Kraus
  • Marie-Eve Landry
  • Chris Lemieux
  • Matt MacDonald
  • Dennis Mahony
  • Patricia Manuel
  • Shawn Marshall
  • Steve McCollough
  • Shannon Miedema
  • Kathleen Miller
  • Tamsin Mills
  • Simon Mitchell
  • Brian Montgomery
  • Linda Mortsch
  • Natalia Moudrak
  • Chad Nelson
  • Adolf Ng
  • Nancy Olewiler
  • Sara Jane O’Neill
  • Glen Parker
  • Hope Parnham
  • Jo-Ellen Parry
  • David Peterson
  • Francis Pigeon
  • Susan Preston
  • Jessica Puddister
  • Mark Radley
  • Graeme Reed
  • Gerald Renaud
  • Raul Salas Reyes
  • Dany Robidoux
  • Chris Rol
  • Dimple Roy
  • Michelle Rutty
  • Jo-Anne Rzadki
  • Marjorie Shepherd
  • Aviva Shiller
  • Dana Simon
  • Andrew Stumpf
  • Tim Taylor
  • Jim Vanderwal
  • Johanna Wandel
  • Emma Watson
  • Erica Weterings
  • Bruce Wilson
  • Ram Yerubandi
  • Alice Yu
  • Christine Zimmer
  • Carly Ziter
  • Laura Zizzo


We would also like to acknowledge the valuable guidance and input of the National Assessment Advisory Committee:

  • Gord Beal, Chartered Professional Accountants Canada
  • Robert Capozi, New Brunswick Climate Change Secretariat
  • Stewart Cohen, Independent Climate Scientist, Environment and Climate Change Canada (retired)
  • Ellen Curtis, Physical and Health Education Canada
  • Susan Evans, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs
  • Elaine Fox, Government of Manitoba
  • Pierre Gosselin, Institut national de santé publique du Québec
  • Sara Holzman, Government of Nunavut
  • Ewa Jackson, ICLEI Canada
  • Caroline Larrivée, Ouranos
  • David Lapp, Engineers Canada (retired)
  • Fred Lipschultz, U.S. Global Change Research Program
  • Patricia Manuel, Dalhousie University
  • Linda Mortsch, University of Waterloo
  • Graeme Reed, Assembly of First Nations
  • Marjorie Shepherd, Environment and Climate Change Canada
  • Jim Vanderwal, Fraser Basin Council
  • Thomas White, Natural Resources Canada


We would also like to recognize the following students and support staff for their helpful contributions:

  • Meredith Caspell
  • Kathleen Godfrey
  • Gwynneth Magnan
  • Sana Malik
  • Brenda Reid
  • Brittany Poisson
  • Julia Szwarc


Thank you to all, from the Assessment Secretariat:

  • Diane Dupuis
  • Joanne Egan
  • Nicole Lulham
  • Fiona Warren