The Canada–U.S. Pacific Salmon Treaty

The Pacific Salmon Treaty (PST) was ratified in 1985 to prevent overfishing and improve the management of five salmon stocks shared between Canada and the United States. The PST was successfully renegotiated in 1999 using a multi-stakeholder approach to address conflict over “interceptions” of fish—fish that originate in one country but are caught in the other. At that time, the treaty also established a restoration and enhancement fund to support healthy salmon populations in both marine and freshwater environments. The agreement’s focus on anadromous species illustrates how marine and freshwater linkages can be considered in a transboundary agreement. Joint recommendations put forward in 2018 for a new 10-year agreement explicitly acknowledge climate change and include provisions for long-term monitoring, science-based management, and renewed commitments to support conservation and sustainable-use opportunities for Indigenous, commercial and recreational fishers.

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